Hot homes is one of the major reason people are bitten by mosquitoes, they refuse to close their door, window, or sleep under mosquito nets because they are cooking inside a badly designed home that is so hot, they refuse to sleep under mosquito nets.
To facilitate humans sleeping under mosquito nets, closing doors, and window the inside temperature needs to be below 80 degrees. The roof and wall absorb heat during the day, it takes 2-3 hours after the sun sets before they close the windows.
From 1 hour before, and 1 hour after sunset is the time when mosquitoes are most active, and the time when locals refuse to close their windows are doors. It is this time when the home needs to be cooled, or we need to promote screened porches. etc.
List of Passive Cooling Concepts
1. The more window the better.
2. Windows should allow air to enter from the complete window, sliding window that force the window to be half closed are not correct.
3. Vent the attics (Put fan, but not passive.
4. Cover steal roofs with thatch.
5. Screen doors and window screens.
6. Sunlight should never be able to enter a window directly.
7. Plant trees around house, and in front of windows, doors, and other places where direct sun can enter the house.
8. Awning on outside of windows.
9. Curtains that allow zero sunlight to enter.
10. Sleep on mattress on floor, it is the coolest place of home.
11. At top of room is screens that allow the hot area to depart.
12. Mathematically, a person needs to know how long to cool the cement, wall, wood, the house.
13. Overhangs need to be very long to stop any sun from landing on side walls of the home.
14. Plant shrubs up against the house to climb the wall and insulate against sun.
15. Keep cooking outside, and far away from home.
16. Water, moisture, and humidity need separated from sleeping. Although it seems convenient to have the toilet and shower close, we need separated.
17. Door on shower area, and closed, pushing humidity outside the home.
Science of Cooling:
There are three types of heat transfer Convection, Conduction, and Radiation.
Convection - this is the water boiling in a pot, the forced air furnace blowing air into a room, rolling down the window in a moving car. This is only effective when there is movement and mixing.
Conduction - the water only boils in the pot if sitting on the correct stove burner, there has to be direct contact, sitting a pot next to the burner will never work. The roof gets hot, transfers heat to the rafters it is touching, which transfers heat to the insulation, which eventually transfers heat to the ceiling and keeping the home hot at night when it is cooler outside.
Radiation - travels without the need of media and transfers heat through a vacuum. Sitting at a stoplight in your car in 30 degree F weather, the air is cold, the glass is cold, but the radiation (sunlight) coming through the window feels warm or even hot. Just like an x-ray, not all materials block ultraviolet light which is the light band responsible for heat transfer.
Practical application - convection is the least effective method of transfer and requires consistent cross ventilation or a more active input like a fan, air-conditioner, or heater. Conduction is the next effective method requiring only contact between media of different temperatures. Radiation is the most effective method by far as it directly energizes objects as it passes through them. Radiation both heats up a roof and can pass through, also by heating the roof it starts radiating heat. An airspace between a roof and a radiant barrier will warm up but 95% or so of the radiant heat is reflected back out through the roof, leaving 5% energy to heat the barrier itself. Since radiated heat is much more efficient and 95% has been reflected away, the temperature of the air space and barrier becomes much less significant. The result is a 20-30 degree drop in temperature from under the roof to under the barrier. Getting the hot air to leave the space approaches an insignificant problem to bother solving. An "optimal" installation will have the barrier installed under the rafters, stopping short just like a fiberglass batt insulation install, allowing airflow in the attic between the eves and ridge vent.
In the house I built for myself, before I learned as much about radiant barriers, I installed a fan on each gable end that had a sensor to automatically turn on based on temperature and/or humidity in the attic. This was effective in lowing the heat in the attic, but more in the 10-15 degree range vs 20-30 degrees installing a barrier would have yielded.