Malaria has been eradicated in many countries, only by ignoring success can we fail to eradicate malaria in Kara, Togo.
HISTORY OF MALARIA ERADICATION METHODS
(1934, 1946) Chloroquine (Resochin)
Chloroquine was discovered by a German, Hans Andersag, in 1934 at Bayer I.G. Farbenindustrie A.G. laboratories in Eberfeld, Germany. He named his compound resochin. Through a series of lapses and confusion brought about during the war, chloroquine was finally recognized and established as an effective and safe antimalarial in 1946 by British and U.S. scientists.
(DDT) (1939) Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane
A German chemistry student, Othmer Zeidler, synthesized DDT in 1874, for his thesis. The insecticidal property of DDT was not discovered until 1939 by Paul Müller in Switzerland. Various militaries in WWII utilized the new insecticide initially for control of louse-borne typhus. DDT was used for malaria control at the end of WWII after it had proven effective against malaria-carrying mosquitoes by British, Italian, and American scientists. Müller won the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1948.
2013 West Nile Fever - Breeding site reduction is the most effective strategy for reducing mosquito populations. Plymouthmosquito.com
2013 West Nile Fever - Larviciding is second most effective method of eliminating mosquitoes. Plymouthmosquito.com
In 1916, Dr. A.R. Campbell, a Bacteriologist at San Antonio, Texas constructed a bat house to colonize bats in order to destroy the malaria carrying mosquitoes. malariasite.com
In 1921-22, a fish called Gambusia affinis or mosquitofish was the released into water collections for its larvivorous habits and was found useful in the control of mosquitoes in California. malariasite.com
USA PANAMA CANAL
Drainage: All pools within 200 yards of all villages and 100 yards of all individual houses were drained. Subsoil drainage was preferred followed by concrete ditches. Lastly, open ditches were constructed. Paid inspectors made sure ditches remained free of obstructions.
Brush and grass cutting: All brush and grass was cut and maintained at less than one foot high within 200 yards of villages and 100 yards of individual houses. The rationale was that mosquitoes would not cross open areas over 100 yards.
Oiling: When drainage was not possible along the grassy edges of ponds and swamps, oil was added to kill mosquito larvae.
Larviciding: When oiling was not sufficient, larvaciding was done. At the time, there were no commercial insecticides. Joseph Augustin LePrince, Chief Sanitary Inspector for the Canal Zone developed a larvacide mixture of carbolic acid, resin and caustic soda that was spread in great quantity.
Prophylactic quinine: Quinine was provided freely to all workers along the construction line at 21 dispensaries. In addition, quinine dispensers were on all hotel and mess tables. On average, half of the work force took a prophylactic dose of quinine each day.
Screening: Following the great success in Havana, all governmental buildings and quarters were screened against mosquitoes.
Killing adult mosquitoes: Because the mosquitoes usually stayed in the tent or the house after feeding, collectors were hired to gather the adult mosquitoes that remained in the houses during the daytime. This proved to be very effective. Mosquitoes that were collected in tents were examined by Dr. Samuel T. Darling, Chief of the Board of Health Laboratory. Cost of adult mosquito killing was $3.50/per capita/per year for whole population of the strip. cdc.gov
Quinine was provided freely to all workers. malariasite.com
Chief Sanitary Inspector for the Canal Zone developed a larvacide mixture of carbolic acid, resin and caustic soda that was spread in great quantity malariasite.com
- Draining marshes and spraying larva-infested areas. (Israel)
- Dr Kligler taught that eradication of malaria is a local problem.
- Changing irrigation canals to allow larvae to dry and die.
- Book explaining Dr. Kliger methods online, you can read the whole book:
Approval of laws regulating the production and free distribution of quinine. mjhid.org